### Spectral Characterizations of Dumbbell Graphs

#### Abstract

A *dumbbell graph*, denoted by $D_{a,b,c}$, is a bicyclic graph consisting of two vertex-disjoint cycles $C_a$, $C_b$ and a path $P_{c+3}$ ($c \geq -1$) joining them having only its end-vertices in common with the two cycles. In this paper, we study the spectral characterization w.r.t. the adjacency spectrum of $D_{a,b,0}$ (without cycles $C_4$) with $\gcd(a,b)\geq 3$, and we complete the research started in [J.F. Wang *et al.*, A note on the spectral characterization of dumbbell graphs, Linear Algebra Appl. 431 (2009) 1707–1714]. In particular we show that $D_{a,b,0}$ with $3 \leq \gcd(a,b) < a$ or $\gcd(a,b)=a$ and $b\neq 3a$ is determined by the spectrum. For $b=3a$, we determine the unique graph cospectral with $D_{a,3a,0}$. Furthermore we give the spectral characterization w.r.t. the signless Laplacian spectrum of all dumbbell graphs.