### New Duality Operator for Complex Circulant Matrices and a Conjecture of Ryser

#### Abstract

We associate to any given circulant complex matrix $C$ another one $E(C)$ such that $E(E(C)) = C^{*}$ the transpose conjugate of $C.$ All circulant Hadamard matrices of order $4$ satisfy a condition $C_4$ on their eigenvalues, namely, the absolute value of the sum of all eigenvalues is bounded above by $2.$ We prove by a "descent" that uses our operator $E$ that the only circulant Hadamard matrices of order $n \geq 4$, that satisfy a condition $C_n$ that generalizes the condition $C_4$ and that consist of a list of $n/4$ inequalities for the absolute value of some sums of eigenvalues of $H$ are the known ones.

#### Keywords

Fourier matrix; Fourier transform; Circulant Hadamard matrices; Ryser's Conjecture