Transversals, Plexes, and Multiplexes in Iterated Quasigroups

Anna Taranenko

Abstract


A $d$-ary quasigroup of order $n$ is a $d$-ary operation over a set of cardinality $n$ such that the Cayley table of the operation is a $d$-dimensional latin hypercube of the same order. Given a binary quasigroup $G$, the $d$-iterated quasigroup $G^{\left[d\right]}$ is a $d$-ary quasigroup that is a $d$-time composition of $G$ with itself. A $k$-multiplex (a $k$-plex) $K$ in a $d$-dimensional latin hypercube $Q$ of order $n$ or in the corresponding $d$-ary quasigroup is a multiset (a set) of $kn$ entries such that each hyperplane and each symbol of $Q$ is covered by exactly $k$ elements of $K$. It is common to call 1-plexes transversals. 

In this paper we prove that there exists a constant $c(G,k)$ such that if a $d$-iterated quasigroup $G$ of order $n$ has a $k$-multiplex then for large $d$ the number of its $k$-multiplexes is asymptotically equal to $c(G,k) \left(\frac{(kn)!}{k!^n}\right)^{d-1}$. As a corollary we obtain that if the number of transversals in the Cayley table of a $d$-iterated quasigroup $G$ of order $n$ is nonzero then asymptotically it is $c(G,1)  n!^{d-1}$.  

In addition, we  provide limit constants and recurrence formulas for the numbers of transversals in two iterated quasigroups of order $5$, characterize a typical $k$-multiplex and estimate numbers of partial $k$-multiplexes and transversals in $d$-iterated quasigroups.

 

Keywords


Latin hypercube; Transversal; Plex; Quasigroup; Multidimensional Permanent

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