Homomesy in Products of Two Chains

James Propp, Tom Roby

Abstract


Many invertible actions $\tau$ on a set $\mathcal{S}$ of combinatorial objects, along with a natural statistic $f$ on $\mathcal{S}$, exhibit the following property which we dub homomesy: the average of $f$ over each $\tau$-orbit in $\mathcal{S}$ is the same as the average of $f$ over the whole set $\mathcal{S}$. This phenomenon was first noticed by Panyushev in 2007 in the context of the rowmotion action on the set of antichains of a root poset; Armstrong, Stump, and Thomas proved Panyushev's conjecture in 2011. We describe a theoretical framework for results of this kind  that applies more broadly, giving examples in a variety of contexts. These include linear actions on vector spaces, sandpile dynamics, Suter's action on certain subposets of Young's Lattice, Lyness 5-cycles, promotion of rectangular semi-standard Young tableaux, and the rowmotion and promotion actions on certain posets. We give a detailed description of the latter situation for products of two chains.  




Keywords


antichains; ballot theorems; homomesy; Lyness 5-cycle; orbit; order ideals; Panyushev complementation; permutations, poset; product of chains; promotion; rowmotion; sandpile; Suter's symmetry; toggle group; Young's Lattice; Young tableaux

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