### Exponential Domination in Subcubic Graphs

Stéphane Bessy, Pascal Ochem, Dieter Rautenbach

#### Abstract

As a natural variant of domination in graphs, Dankelmann et al. [Domination with exponential decay, Discrete Math. 309 (2009) 5877-5883] introduced exponential domination, where vertices are considered to have some dominating power that decreases exponentially with the distance, and the dominated vertices have to accumulate a sufficient amount of this power emanating from the dominating vertices. More precisely, if $S$ is a set of vertices of a graph $G$, then $S$ is an exponential dominating set of $G$ if $\sum\limits_{v\in S}\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{{\rm dist}_{(G,S)}(u,v)-1}\geq 1$ for every vertex $u$ in $V(G)\setminus S$, where ${\rm dist}_{(G,S)}(u,v)$ is the distance between $u\in V(G)\setminus S$ and $v\in S$ in the graph $G-(S\setminus \{ v\})$. The exponential domination number $\gamma_e(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum order of an exponential dominating set of $G$.

In the present paper we study exponential domination in subcubic graphs. Our results are as follows: If $G$ is a connected subcubic graph of order $n(G)$, then $$\frac{n(G)}{6\log_2(n(G)+2)+4}\leq \gamma_e(G)\leq \frac{1}{3}(n(G)+2).$$ For every $\epsilon>0$, there is some $g$ such that $\gamma_e(G)\leq \epsilon n(G)$ for every cubic graph $G$ of girth at least $g$. For every $0<\alpha<\frac{2}{3\ln(2)}$, there are infinitely many cubic graphs $G$ with $\gamma_e(G)\leq \frac{3n(G)}{\ln(n(G))^{\alpha}}$. If $T$ is a subcubic tree, then $\gamma_e(T)\geq \frac{1}{6}(n(T)+2).$ For a given subcubic tree, $\gamma_e(T)$ can be determined in polynomial time. The minimum exponential dominating set problem is APX-hard for subcubic graphs.

#### Keywords

Domination; Exponential domination; Subcubic graph; Cubic graph; Girth; Cage

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