### An Inertial Lower Bound for the Chromatic Number of a Graph

#### Abstract

Let $\chi(G$) and $\chi_f(G)$ denote the chromatic and fractional chromatic numbers of a graph $G$, and let $(n^+ , n^0 , n^-)$ denote the inertia of $G$. We prove that:

\[

1 + \max\left(\frac{n^+}{n^-} , \frac{n^-}{n^+}\right) \le \chi(G)\] and conjecture that \[ 1 + \max\left(\frac{n^+}{n^-} , \frac{n^-}{n^+}\right) \le \chi_f(G).\] We investigate extremal graphs for these bounds and demonstrate that this inertial bound is not a lower bound for the vector chromatic number. We conclude with a discussion of asymmetry between $n^+$ and $n^-$, including some Nordhaus-Gaddum bounds for inertia.

#### Keywords

Spectral graph theory; Chromatic number; Fractional chromatic number