Secret Sharing Schemes on Sparse Homogeneous Access Structures with Rank Three
One of the main open problems in secret sharing is the characterization of the ideal access structures. This problem has been studied for several families of access structures with similar results. Namely, in all these families, the ideal access structures coincide with the vector space ones and, besides, the optimal information rate of a non-ideal access structure is at most $2/3$.
An access structure is said to be $r$-homogeneous if there are exactly $r$ participants in every minimal qualified subset. A first approach to the characterization of the ideal $3$-homogeneous access structures is made in this paper. We show that the results in the previously studied families can not be directly generalized to this one. Nevertheless, we prove that the equivalences above apply to the family of the sparse $3$-homogeneous access structures, that is, those in which any subset of four participants contains at most two minimal qualified subsets. Besides, we give a complete description of the ideal sparse $3$-homogeneous access structures.