Coloured Generalised Young Diagrams for Affine Weyl-Coxeter Groups

  • R. C. King
  • T. A. Welsh


Coloured generalised Young diagrams $T(w)$ are introduced that are in bijective correspondence with the elements $w$ of the Weyl-Coxeter group $W$ of $\mathfrak{g}$, where $\mathfrak{g}$ is any one of the classical affine Lie algebras $\mathfrak{g}=A^{(1)}_\ell$, $B^{(1)}_\ell$, $C^{(1)}_\ell$, $D^{(1)}_\ell$, $A^{(2)}_{2\ell}$, $A^{(2)}_{2\ell-1}$ or $D^{(2)}_{\ell+1}$. These diagrams are coloured by means of periodic coloured grids, one for each $\mathfrak{g}$, which enable $T(w)$ to be constructed from any expression $w=s_{i_1}s_{i_2}\cdots s_{i_t}$ in terms of generators $s_k$ of $W$, and any (reduced) expression for $w$ to be obtained from $T(w)$. The diagram $T(w)$ is especially useful because $w(\Lambda)-\Lambda$ may be readily obtained from $T(w)$ for all $\Lambda$ in the weight space of $\mathfrak{g}$.

With $\overline{\mathfrak{g}}$ a certain maximal finite dimensional simple Lie subalgebra of $\mathfrak{g}$, we examine the set $W_s$ of minimal right coset representatives of $\overline{W}$ in $W$, where $\overline{W}$ is the Weyl-Coxeter group of $\overline{\mathfrak{g}}$. For $w\in W_s$, we show that $T(w)$ has the shape of a partition (or a slight variation thereof) whose $r$-core takes a particularly simple form, where $r$ or $r/2$ is the dual Coxeter number of $\mathfrak{g}$. Indeed, it is shown that $W_s$ is in bijection with such partitions.

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