# Distance Domination and Distance Irredundance in Graphs

A set $D\subseteq V$ of vertices is said to be a (connected) distance $k$-dominating set of $G$ if the distance between each vertex $u\in V-D$ and $D$ is at most $k$ (and $D$ induces a connected graph in $G$). The minimum cardinality of a (connected) distance $k$-dominating set in $G$ is the (connected) distance $k$-domination number of $G$, denoted by $\gamma_k(G)$ ($\gamma_k^c(G)$, respectively). The set $D$ is defined to be a total $k$-dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $V$ is within distance $k$ from some vertex of $D$ other than itself. The minimum cardinality among all total $k$-dominating sets of $G$ is called the total $k$-domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $\gamma_k^t(G)$. For $x\in X\subseteq V$, if $N^k[x]-N^k[X-x]\neq\emptyset$, the vertex $x$ is said to be $k$-irredundant in $X$. A set $X$ containing only $k$-irredundant vertices is called $k$-irredundant. The $k$-irredundance number of $G$, denoted by $ir_k(G)$, is the minimum cardinality taken over all maximal $k$-irredundant sets of vertices of $G$. In this paper we establish lower bounds for the distance $k$-irredundance number of graphs and trees. More precisely, we prove that ${5k+1\over 2}ir_k(G)\geq \gamma_k^c(G)+2k$ for each connected graph $G$ and $(2k+1)ir_k(T)\geq\gamma_k^c(T)+2k\geq |V|+2k-kn_1(T)$ for each tree $T=(V,E)$ with $n_1(T)$ leaves. A class of examples shows that the latter bound is sharp. The second inequality generalizes a result of Meierling and Volkmann and Cyman, Lemańska and Raczek regarding $\gamma_k$ and the first generalizes a result of Favaron and Kratsch regarding $ir_1$. Furthermore, we shall show that $\gamma_k^c(G)\leq{3k+1\over2}\gamma_k^t(G)-2k$ for each connected graph $G$, thereby generalizing a result of Favaron and Kratsch regarding $k=1$.