The Orderings of Bicyclic Graphs and Connected Graphs by Algebraic Connectivity

  • Jianxi Li
  • Ji-Ming Guo
  • Wai Chee Shiu


The algebraic connectivity of a graph $G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian matrix. Let $\mathscr{B}_n$ be the set of all bicyclic graphs of order $n$. In this paper, we determine the last four bicyclic graphs (according to their smallest algebraic connectivities) among all graphs in $\mathscr{B}_n$ when $n\geq 13$. This result, together with our previous results on trees and unicyclic graphs, can be used to further determine the last sixteen graphs among all connected graphs of order $n$. This extends the results of Shao et al. [The ordering of trees and connected graphs by their algebraic connectivity, Linear Algebra Appl. 428 (2008) 1421-1438].

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