Discrete bidding games

  • Mike Develin
  • Sam Payne


We study variations on combinatorial games in which, instead of alternating moves, the players bid with discrete bidding chips for the right to determine who moves next. We consider both symmetric and partisan games, and explore differences between discrete bidding games and Richman games, which allow real-valued bidding. Unlike Richman games, discrete bidding game variations of many familiar games, such as chess, Connect Four, and even Tic-Tac-Toe, are suitable for recreational play. We also present an analysis of Tic-Tac-Toe for both discrete and real-valued bidding.

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