Counting Permutations Modulo Pattern-Replacement Equivalences for Three-Letter Patterns

  • William Kuszmaul
Keywords: Pattern-replacement, Permutations, Equivalence classes


We study a family of equivalence relations on $S_n$, the group of permutations on $n$ letters, created in a manner similar to that of the Knuth relation and the forgotten relation. For our purposes, two permutations are in the same equivalence class if one can be reached from the other through a series of pattern-replacements using patterns whose order permutations are in the same part of a predetermined partition of $S_c$.

When the partition is of $S_3$ and has one nontrivial part and that part is of size greater than two, we provide formulas for the number of classes created in all cases left unresolved by past authros. When the partition is of $S_3$ and has two nontrivial parts, each of size two (as do the Knuth and forgotten relations), we enumerate the classes for 13 of the 14 unresolved cases. In two of these cases, enumerations arise which are the same as those yielded by the Knuth and forgotten relations. The reasons for this phenomenon are still largely a mystery.

Article Number