# Skew Spectra of Oriented Bipartite Graphs

Keywords:
oriented bipartite graphs, skew energy, skew spectrum, canonical orientation, parity-linked orientation, switching-equivalence

### Abstract

A graph $G$ is said to have a parity-linked orientation $\phi$ if every even cycle $C_{2k}$ in $G^{\phi}$ is evenly (resp. oddly) oriented whenever $k$ is even (resp. odd). In this paper, this concept is used to provide an affirmative answer to the following conjecture of D. Cui and Y. Hou [D. Cui, Y. Hou, On the skew spectra of Cartesian products of graphs,*Electronic J. Combin.*20(2):#P19, 2013]: Let $G=G(X,Y)$ be a bipartite graph. Call the $X\rightarrow Y$ orientation of $G,$ the canonical orientation. Let $\phi$ be any orientation of $G$ and let $Sp_S(G^{\phi})$ and $Sp(G)$ denote respectively the skew spectrum of $G^{\phi}$ and the spectrum of $G.$ Then $Sp_S(G^{\phi}) = {\bf{i}} Sp(G)$ if and only if $\phi$ is switching-equivalent to the canonical orientation of $G.$ Using this result, we determine the switch for a special family of oriented hypercubes $Q_d^{\phi},$ $d\geq 1.$ Moreover, we give an orientation of the Cartesian product of a bipartite graph and a graph, and then determine the skew spectrum of the resulting oriented product graph, which generalizes a result of Cui and Hou. Further this can be used to construct new families of oriented graphs with maximum skew energy.