Near-Colorings: Non-Colorable Graphs and NP-Completeness
A graph $G$ is $(d_1,...,d_l)$-colorable if the vertex set of $G$ can be partitioned into subsets $V_1,\ldots ,V_l$ such that the graph $G[V_i]$ induced by the vertices of $V_i$ has maximum degree at most $d_i$ for all $1 \leq i \leq l$. In this paper, we focus on complexity aspects of such colorings when $l=2,3$. More precisely, we prove that, for any fixed integers $k,j,g$ with $(k,j) \neq (0,0)$ and $g\geq3$, either every planar graph with girth at least $g$ is $(k,j)$-colorable or it is NP-complete to determine whether a planar graph with girth at least $g$ is $(k,j)$-colorable. Also, for any fixed integer $k$, it is NP-complete to determine whether a planar graph that is either $(0,0,0)$-colorable or non-$(k,k,1)$-colorable is $(0,0,0)$-colorable. Additionally, we exhibit non-$(3,1)$-colorable planar graphs with girth 5 and non-$(2,0)$-colorable planar graphs with girth 7.