Weak and Strong Versions of the 1-2-3 Conjecture for Uniform Hypergraphs

  • Patrick Bennett
  • Andrzej Dudek
  • Alan Frieze
  • Laars Helenius


Given an $r$-uniform hypergraph $H=(V,E)$ and a weight function $\omega:E\to\{1,\dots,w\}$, a coloring of vertices of~$H$, induced by~$\omega$, is defined by $c(v) = \sum_{e\ni v} w(e)$ for all $v\in V$. If there exists such a coloring that is strong (that means in each edge no color appears more than once), then we say that $H$ is strongly $w$-weighted. Similarly, if the coloring is weak (that means there is no monochromatic edge), then we say that $H$ is weakly $w$-weighted. In this paper, we show that almost all 3 or 4-uniform hypergraphs are strongly 2-weighted (but not 1-weighted) and almost all $5$-uniform hypergraphs are either 1 or 2 strongly weighted (with a nontrivial distribution). Furthermore, for $r\ge 6$ we show that almost all $r$-uniform hypergraphs are strongly 1-weighted. We complement these results by showing that almost all 3-uniform hypergraphs are weakly 2-weighted but not 1-weighted and for $r\ge 4$ almost all $r$-uniform hypergraphs are weakly 1-weighted. These results extend a previous work of Addario-Berry, Dalal and Reed for graphs. We also prove general lower bounds and show that there are $r$-uniform hypergraphs which are not strongly $(r^2-r)$-weighted and not weakly 2-weighted. Finally, we show that determining whether a particular uniform hypergraph is strongly 2-weighted is NP-complete.

Article Number