Every Graph $G$ is Hall $\Delta(G)$-Extendible

  • Sarah Holliday
  • Jennifer Vandenbussche
  • Erik E. Westlund
Keywords: Vertex coloring, List coloring, Precoloring Extension, Hall's condition, Hall $k$-extendible.


In the context of list coloring the vertices of a graph, Hall's condition is a generalization of Hall's Marriage Theorem and is necessary (but not sufficient) for a graph to admit a proper list coloring. The graph $G$ with list assignment $L$, abbreviated $(G,L)$, satisfies Hall's condition if for each subgraph $H$ of $G$, the inequality $|V(H)| \leq \sum_{\sigma \in \mathcal{C}} \alpha(H(\sigma, L))$ is satisfied, where $\mathcal{C}$ is the set of colors and $\alpha(H(\sigma, L))$ is the independence number of the subgraph of $H$ induced on the set of vertices having color $\sigma$ in their lists. A list assignment $L$ to a graph $G$ is called Hall if $(G,L)$ satisfies Hall's condition. A graph $G$ is Hall $k$-extendible for some $k \geq \chi(G)$ if every $k$-precoloring of $G$ whose corresponding list assignment is Hall can be extended to a proper $k$-coloring of $G$. In 2011, Bobga et al. posed the question: If $G$ is neither complete nor an odd cycle, is $G$ Hall $\Delta(G)$-extendible? This paper establishes an affirmative answer to this question: every graph $G$ is Hall $\Delta(G)$-extendible. Results relating to the behavior of Hall extendibility under subgraph containment are also given. Finally, for certain graph families, the complete spectrum of values of $k$ for which they are Hall $k$-extendible is presented. We include a focus on graphs which are Hall $k$-extendible for all $k \geq \chi(G)$, since these are graphs for which satisfying the obviously necessary Hall's condition is also sufficient for a precoloring to be extendible.

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