Orthogonal Trades in Complete Sets of MOLS

  • Nicholas Cavenagh
  • Diane Donovan
  • Fatih Demirkale
Keywords: MOLS, Trade, Orthomorphism, Transversal.


Let $B_p$ be the Latin square given by the addition table for the integers modulo an odd prime $p$. Here we consider the properties of Latin trades in $B_p$ which preserve orthogonality with one of the $p-1$ MOLS given by the finite field construction. We show that for certain choices of the orthogonal mate, there is a lower bound logarithmic in $p$ for the number of times each symbol occurs in such a trade, with an overall lower bound of $(\log{p})^2/\log\log{p}$ for the size of such a trade. Such trades imply the existence of orthomorphisms of the cyclic group which differ from a linear orthomorphism by a small amount. We also show that any transversal in $B_p$ hits the main diagonal either $p$ or at most $p-\log_2{p}-1$ times. Finally, if $p\equiv 1\pmod{6}$ we show the existence of a Latin square which is orthogonal to $B_p$ and which contains a $2\times 2$ subsquare.

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