# Graphical Mahonian Statistics on Words

### Abstract

Foata and Zeilberger defined the graphical major index, $\mathrm{maj}_U$, and the graphical inversion index, $\mathrm{inv}_U$, for words over the alphabet $\{1, 2, \dots, n\}$. These statistics are a generalization of the classical permutation statistics $\mathrm{maj}$ and $\mathrm{inv}$ indexed by directed graphs $U$. They showed that $\mathrm{maj}_U$ and $\mathrm{inv}_U$ are equidistributed over all rearrangement classes if and only if $U$ is *bipartitional*. In this paper we strengthen their result by showing that if $\mathrm{maj}_U$ and $\mathrm{inv}_U$ are equidistributed on a single rearrangement class then $U$ is *essentially bipartitional*. Moreover, we define a graphical sorting index, $\mathrm{sor}_U$, which generalizes the sorting index of a permutation. We then characterize the graphs $U$ for which $\mathrm{sor}_U$ is equidistributed with $\mathrm{inv}_U$ and $\mathrm{maj}_U$ on a single rearrangement class.