Vizing's 2-Factor Conjecture Involving Toughness and Maximum Degree Conditions

  • Jinko Kanno
  • Songling Shan


Let $G$ be a simple graph, and let $\Delta(G)$ and $\chi'(G)$ denote the maximum degree and chromatic index of $G$, respectively. Vizing proved that $\chi'(G)=\Delta(G)$ or $\chi'(G)=\Delta(G)+1$. We say $G$ is $\Delta$-critical if $\chi'(G)=\Delta(G)+1$ and $\chi'(H)<\chi'(G)$ for every proper subgraph $H$ of $G$. In 1968, Vizing conjectured that if $G$ is a $\Delta$-critical graph, then  $G$ has a 2-factor. Let $G$ be an $n$-vertex $\Delta$-critical graph. It was proved that if $\Delta(G)\ge n/2$, then $G$ has a 2-factor; and that if $\Delta(G)\ge 2n/3+13$, then $G$  has a hamiltonian cycle, and thus a 2-factor. It is well known that every 2-tough graph with at least three vertices has a 2-factor. We investigate the existence of a 2-factor in a $\Delta$-critical graph under "moderate" given toughness and  maximum degree conditions. In particular, we show that  if $G$ is an  $n$-vertex $\Delta$-critical graph with toughness at least 3/2 and with maximum degree at least $n/3$, then $G$ has a 2-factor. We also construct a family of graphs that have order $n$, maximum degree $n-1$, toughness at least $3/2$, but have no 2-factor. This implies that the $\Delta$-criticality in the result is needed. In addition, we develop new techniques in proving the existence of 2-factors in graphs.

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