• Colin Defant
  • Noah Kravitz
  • Ashwin Sah


A $k$-universal permutation, or $k$-superpermutation, is a permutation that contains all permutations of length $k$ as patterns.  The problem of finding the minimum length of a $k$-superpermutation has recently received significant attention in the field of permutation patterns.  One can ask analogous questions for other classes of objects.  In this paper, we study $k$-supertrees.  For each $d\geq 2$, we focus on two types of rooted plane trees called $d$-ary plane trees and $[d]$-trees.  Motivated by recent developments in the literature, we consider "contiguous" and "noncontiguous" notions of pattern containment for each type of tree.  We obtain both upper and lower bounds on the minimum possible size of a $k$-supertree in three cases; in the fourth, we determine the minimum size exactly.  One of our lower bounds makes use of a recent result of Albert, Engen, Pantone, and Vatter on $k$-universal layered permutations.

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