Grossberg–Karshon Twisted Cubes and Hesitant Jumping Walk Avoidance

  • Eunjeong Lee


Let $G$ be a complex simply-laced semisimple algebraic group of rank $r$ and $B$ a Borel subgroup. Let $\mathbf i \in [r]^n$ be a word and let $\boldsymbol{\ell} = (\ell_1,\dots,\ell_n)$ be a sequence of non-negative integers. Grossberg and Karshon introduced a virtual lattice polytope associated to $\mathbf i$ and $\boldsymbol{\ell}$ called a twisted cube, whose lattice points encode the character of a $B$-representation. More precisely, lattice points in the twisted cube, counted with sign according to a certain density function, yields the character of the generalized Demazure module determined by $\mathbf i$ and $\boldsymbol{\ell}$. In recent work, the author and Harada described precisely when the Grossberg–Karshon twisted cube is untwisted, i.e., the twisted cube is a closed convex polytope, in the situation when the integer sequence $\boldsymbol{\ell}$ comes from a weight $\lambda$ of $G$. However, not every integer sequence $\boldsymbol{\ell}$ comes from a weight of $G$. In the present paper, we interpret the untwistedness of Grossberg–Karshon twisted cubes associated with any word $\mathbf i$ and any integer sequence $\boldsymbol{\ell}$ using the combinatorics of $\mathbf i$ and $\boldsymbol{\ell}$. Indeed, we prove that the Grossberg–Karshon twisted cube is untwisted precisely when $\mathbf i$ is hesitant-jumping-$\boldsymbol{\ell}$-walk-avoiding.

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