Chromatic Vertex Folkman Numbers

  • Xiaodong Xu
  • Meilian Liang
  • Stanisław P. Radziszowski


For graph $G$ and integers $a_1 \ge \cdots \ge a_r \ge 2$, we write $G \rightarrow (a_1 ,\cdots ,a_r)^v$  if and only if for every $r$-coloring of the vertex set $V(G)$ there exists a monochromatic $K_{a_i}$ in $G$ for some color $i \in \{1, \cdots, r\}$. The vertex Folkman number $F_v(a_1 ,\cdots ,a_r; s)$ is defined as the smallest integer $n$ for which there exists a $K_s$-free graph $G$ of order $n$ such that $G \rightarrow (a_1 ,\cdots ,a_r)^v$. It is well known that if $G \rightarrow (a_1 ,\cdots ,a_r)^v$ then $\chi(G) \geq m$, where $m = 1+ \sum_{i=1}^r (a_i - 1)$. In this paper we study such Folkman graphs $G$ with chromatic number $\chi(G)=m$, which leads to a new concept of chromatic Folkman numbers. We prove constructively some existential results, among others that for all $r,s \ge 2$ there exist $K_{s+1}$-free graphs $G$ such that $G \rightarrow (s,\cdots_r,s)^v$ and $G$ has the smallest possible chromatic number $r(s-1)+1$ with respect to this property. Among others we conjecture that for every $s \ge 2$ there exists a $K_{s+1}$-free graph $G$ on $F_v(s,s;s+1)$ vertices with $\chi(G)=2s-1$ and $G\rightarrow (s,s)^v$.

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