Transversals, Near Transversals, and Diagonals in Iterated Groups and Quasigroups

  • Anna A. Taranenko


Given a binary quasigroup $G$ of order $n$, a $d$-iterated quasigroup $G[d]$ is the $(d+1)$-ary quasigroup equal to the $d$-times composition of $G$ with itself. The Cayley table of every $d$-ary quasigroup is a $d$-dimensional latin hypercube. Transversals and diagonals in multiary quasigroups are defined so as to coincide with those in the corresponding latin hypercube.

We prove that if a group $G$ of order $n$ satisfies the Hall–Paige condition, then the number of transversals in $G[d]$ is equal to $ \frac{n!}{ |G'| n^{n-1}} \cdot n!^{d}  (1 + o(1))$ for large $d$, where $G'$ is the commutator subgroup of $G$. For a general quasigroup $G$, we obtain similar estimations on the numbers of transversals and near transversals in $G[d]$  and develop a method for counting diagonals of other types in iterated quasigroups.

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