Generalized Planar Turán Numbers
In a generalized Turán problem, we are given graphs $H$ and $F$ and seek to maximize the number of copies of $H$ in an $n$-vertex graph not containing $F$ as a subgraph. We consider generalized Turán problems where the host graph is planar. In particular, we obtain the order of magnitude of the maximum number of copies of a fixed tree in a planar graph containing no even cycle of length at most $2\ell$, for all $\ell$, $\ell \geqslant 1$. We also determine the order of magnitude of the maximum number of cycles of a given length in a planar $C_4$-free graph. An exact result is given for the maximum number of $5$-cycles in a $C_4$-free planar graph. Multiple conjectures are also introduced.