The "Young" and "Reverse" Dichotomy of Polynomials
A ``flip-and-reversal" involution arising in the study of quasisymmetric Schur functions provides a passage between what we term ``Young" and ``reverse" variants of bases of polynomials or quasisymmetric functions. Building on this perspective, which has found recent application in the study of q-analogues of combinatorial Hopf algebras and generalizations of dual immaculate functions, we develop and explore Young analogues of well-known bases for polynomials. We prove several combinatorial formulas for the Young analogue of the key polynomials, show that they form the generating functions for left keys, and provide a representation-theoretic interpretation of Young key polynomials as traces on certain modules. We also give combinatorial formulas for the Young analogues of Schubert polynomials, including their crystal graph structure. We moreover determine the intersections of (reverse) bases and their Young counterparts, further clarifying their relationships to one another.