Pattern-Avoiding Ascent Sequences of Length 3

  • Andrew R. Conway
  • Miles Conway
  • Andrew Elvey Price
  • Anthony J. Guttmann


Pattern-avoiding ascent sequences have recently been related to set-partition problems and stack-sorting problems. While the generating functions for several length-3 pattern-avoiding ascent sequences are known, those avoiding 000, 100, 110, 120 are not known. We have generated extensive series expansions for these four cases, and analysed them in order to conjecture the asymptotic behaviour.

We provide polynomial time algorithms for the $000$ and $110$ cases, and exponential time algorithms for the $100$ and $120$ cases. We also describe how the $000$ polynomial time algorithm was detected somewhat mechanically given an exponential time algorithm.

For 120-avoiding ascent sequences we find that the generating function has stretched-exponential behaviour and prove that the growth constant is the same as that for 201-avoiding ascent sequences, which is known.

The other three generating functions have zero radius of convergence, which we also prove. For 000-avoiding ascent sequences we give what we believe to be the exact growth constant. We give the conjectured asymptotic behaviour for all four cases.

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