Outerspatial 2-Complexes: Extending the Class of Outerplanar Graphs to Three Dimensions

  • Johannes Carmesin
  • Tsvetomir Mihaylov


We introduce the class of outerspatial 2-complexes as the natural generalisation of the class of outerplanar graphs to three dimensions. Answering a question of O-joung Kwon, we prove that a locally 2-connected 2-complex is outerspatial if and only if it does not contain a surface of positive genus as a subcomplex and does not have a space minor that is a generalised cone over $K_4$ or $K_{2,3}$.

This is applied to nested plane embeddings of graphs; that is, plane embeddings constrained by conditions placed on a set of cycles of the graph.

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