Decompositions of Unit Hypercubes and the Reversion of a Generalized Möbius Series

  • Yu Hin (Gary) Au


Let $s_d(n)$ be the number of distinct decompositions of the $d$-dimensional hypercube with $n$ rectangular regions that can be obtained via a sequence of splitting operations. We prove that the generating series $y = \sum_{n \geq 1} s_d(n)x^n$ satisfies the functional equation $x = \sum_{n\geq 1} \mu_d(n)y^n$, where $\mu_d(n)$ is the $d$-fold Dirichlet convolution of the Möbius function. This generalizes a recent result by Goulden et al., and shows that $s_1(n)$ also gives the number of natural exact covering systems of $\mathbb{Z}$ with $n$ residual classes. We also prove an asymptotic formula for $s_d(n)$ and describe a bijection between $1$-dimensional decompositions and natural exact covering systems.

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