Guaranteed Scoring Games

Urban Larsson, Richard J. Nowakowski, João P. Neto, Carlos P. Santos


The class of Guaranteed Scoring Games (GS) are two-player combinatorial games with the property that Normal-play games (Conway et. al.) are ordered embedded into GS. They include, as subclasses, the scoring games considered by Milnor (1953), Ettinger (1996) and Johnson (2014). We present the structure of GS and the techniques needed to analyze a sum of guaranteed games. Firstly, GS form a partially ordered monoid, via defined Right- and Left-stops over the reals, and with disjunctive sum as the operation. In fact, the structure is a quotient monoid with partially ordered congruence classes. We show that there are four reductions that when applied, in any order, give a unique representative for each congruence class. The monoid is not a group, but in this paper we prove that if a game has an inverse it is obtained by 'switching the players'. The order relation between two games is defined by comparing their stops in any disjunctive sum. Here, we demonstrate how to compare the games via a finite algorithm instead, extending ideas of Ettinger, and also Siegel (2013).


Combinatorial game theory; Scoring game; Normal play; Disjunctive sum; Quotient monoid; Game reduction; Constructive game comparison

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