Multipartite Separability of Laplacian Matrices of Graphs
Recently, Braunstein et al. introduced normalized Laplacian matrices of graphs as density matrices in quantum mechanics and studied the relationships between quantum physical properties and graph theoretical properties of the underlying graphs. We provide further results on the multipartite separability of Laplacian matrices of graphs. In particular, we identify complete bipartite graphs whose normalized Laplacian matrix is multipartite entangled under any vertex labeling. Furthermore, we give conditions on the vertex degrees such that there is a vertex labeling under which the normalized Laplacian matrix is entangled. These results address an open question raised in Braunstein et al. Finally, we show that the Laplacian matrix of any product of graphs (strong, Cartesian, tensor, lexicographical, etc.) is multipartite separable, extending analogous results for bipartite and tripartite separability.