# Orthogonal Arrays with Parameters $OA(s^3,s^2+s+1,s,2)$ and 3-Dimensional Projective Geometries

### Abstract

There are many nonisomorphic orthogonal arrays with parameters $OA(s^3,s^2+s+1,s,2)$ although the existence of the arrays yields many restrictions. We denote this by $OA(3,s)$ for simplicity. V. D. Tonchev showed that for even the case of $s=3$, there are at least 68 nonisomorphic orthogonal arrays. The arrays that are constructed by the $n-$dimensional finite spaces have parameters $OA(s^n, (s^n-1)/(s-1),s,2)$. They are called Rao-Hamming type. In this paper we characterize the $OA(3,s)$ of 3-dimensional Rao-Hamming type. We prove several results for a special type of $OA(3,s)$ that satisfies the following condition: For any three rows in the orthogonal array, there exists at least one column, in which the entries of the three rows equal to each other.

We call this property $\alpha$-type.

We prove the following. (1) An $OA(3,s)$ of $\alpha$-type exists if and only if $s$ is a prime power. (2) $OA(3,s)$s of $\alpha$-type are isomorphic to each other as orthogonal arrays. (3) An $OA(3,s)$ of $\alpha$-type yields $PG(3,s)$. (4) The 3-dimensional Rao-Hamming is an $OA(3,s)$ of $\alpha$-type. (5) A linear $OA(3,s)$ is of $\alpha $-type.