The Complete cd-Index of Boolean Lattices

  • Neil J.Y. Fan
  • Liao He
Keywords: complete cd-index, cd-index, Boolean lattice, Bruhat graph


Let $[u,v]$ be a Bruhat interval of a Coxeter group such that the Bruhat graph $BG(u,v)$ of $[u,v]$ is isomorphic to a Boolean lattice. In this paper, we provide a combinatorial explanation for the coefficients of the complete cd-index of $[u,v]$. Since in this case the complete cd-index and the cd-index of $[u,v]$ coincide, we also obtain a new combinatorial interpretation for the coefficients of the cd-index of Boolean lattices. To this end, we label an edge in $BG(u,v)$ by a pair of nonnegative integers and show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between such sequences of nonnegative integer pairs and Bruhat paths in $BG(u,v)$. Based on this labeling, we construct a flip $\mathcal{F}$ on the set of Bruhat paths in $BG(u,v)$, which is an involution that changes the ascent-descent sequence of a path. Then we show that the flip $\mathcal{F}$ is compatible with any given reflection order and also satisfies the flip condition for any cd-monomial $M$. Thus by results of Karu, the coefficient of $M$ enumerates certain Bruhat paths in $BG(u,v)$, and so can be interpreted as the number of certain sequences of nonnegative integer pairs. Moreover, we give two applications of the flip $\mathcal{F}$. We enumerate the number of cd-monomials in the complete cd-index of $[u,v]$ in terms of Entringer numbers, which are refined enumerations of Euler numbers. We also give a refined enumeration of the coefficient of d${}^n$ in terms of Poupard numbers, and so obtain new combinatorial interpretations for Poupard numbers and reduced tangent numbers.

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