Pattern Avoidance in Permutations: Linear and Cyclic Orders
We generalize the notion of pattern avoidance to arbitrary functions on ordered sets, and consider specifically three scenarios for permutations: linear, cyclic and hybrid, the first one corresponding to classical permutation avoidance. The cyclic modification allows for circular shifts in the entries. Using two bijections, both ascribable to both Deutsch and Krattenthaler independently, we single out two geometrically significant classes of Dyck paths that correspond to two instances of simultaneous avoidance in the purely linear case, and to two distinct patterns in the hybrid case: non-decreasing Dyck paths (first considered by Barcucci et al.), and Dyck paths with at most one long vertical or horizontal edge. We derive a generating function counting Dyck paths by their number of low and high peaks, long horizontal and vertical edges, and what we call sinking steps. This translates into the joint distribution of fixed points, excedances, deficiencies, descents and inverse descents over 321-avoiding permutations. In particular we give an explicit formula for the number of 321-avoiding permutations with precisely $k$ descents, a problem recently brought up by Reifegerste. In both the hybrid and purely cyclic scenarios, we deal with the avoidance enumeration problem for all patterns of length up to 4. Simple Dyck paths also have a connection to the purely cyclic case; here the orbit-counting lemma gives a formula involving the Euler totient function and leads us to consider an interesting subgroup of the symmetric group.